"Biederman noticed that "visual entities almost always invite a decomposition of their elements into simples parts." The manner of the decomposition does not depend on subjects’ familiarity, or recognition, of the object: Biederman’s research shows that "nonsense shapes" were decomposed to similar subshapes by subjects. These subshapes are based on viewpoint invariant properties, such as parallel lines, curves, straight lines and symmetry. Biederman then
proposed a theory of entry level object recognition that assumes that a given view of an object is represented as an arrangement of simple, viewpoint-invariant, volumatic primitives called geons. (…) The geons have two particularly desirable properties: they can be distinguished from each other from almost any viewpoint, and their identification is highly resistant to visual noise.
Biederman identifies twenty-four geons, such as brick, cylinder, and cone, which can be set in different relations and aspect ratio to produce 10,497,600 possible two geon objects. In a series of experiments Biederman and others examine the theory of decomposition into geons, and the results are overwhelmingly in support of the theory. Biederman writes:
The theory thus implies a principle of geon recovery: if an arrangement of two or three geons can be recovered from an image, objects can be quickly recognized even when they are ocduded, rotated in depth, novel, extensively degraded, or lacking customary detail, color, and texture.”
Naaman, Dorit. 2000. Sensing Film: A Cognitive Approach to Film Narration and Comprehension, PhD thesis, University of Alberta
Irving Biederman, “Visual Object Recognition”in An Invitation to Cognitive Science: Visual Cognition, Vol. 2, eds. Stephen M. Kosslyn and Daniel N. Osherson, Cambridge, MA: MITPress,1995
YOSHIKO FUKUSHIMA (Kyoto, Japan) [Part 2]
Website » http://www.yoshikofukushima.com/
Tumblr » http://yskfksm.tumblr.com/
Gate of the Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (photo taken during excavation in 1840’s).
742-706 BCE. Khorsabad, Iraq.
from The Giant Golden Book of Biology, 1961. Illustrated by Charley Harper